Evaluation of Medical Waste Treatment Systems:
The collection and treatment of medical wastes which are also accepted as hazardous wastes have crucial importance in the sense of human health. In this paper, the definition of medical wastes, types and responsibilities of the medical waste producers are expressed, The amounts of medical wastes and treatment ways are given with the methods of the Ministry of atmosphere and biology, In order to decrease the threat to the general public and to the employees caused by the medical wastes, the wastes should be man-aged as expressed by the Medical Waste Control Regulation. As an answer of improper depositing of the medical wastes and reducing the threat to environmental pollution, the ministry is planning to extend the sterilization plants all over the country.
Vision & Mission:
Everything that arises as a result of any production or activity and that is not desired by its owner is called as waste. Solid wastes have various types: domestic, industrial, electronic, hazardous, medical, radioactive, etc. They are classification according to where and how they are produced and as a result of this classification, whether they would go through a process or not is revealed. Indeed the essential classification is split as venturous and non-hazardous waste. Although all types of wastes ar venturous, they are classified according to the threat risk.
Even though the kitchen wastes in our houses carry the threats like bacterial growth, the pollution of land and groundwater in the long run, This growth happens in a very long run, however there are such kinds of wastes that even the smallest amounts of them could create a life threat immediately. Industrial wastes are particularly of that type. The medical wastes, on the other hand, are the wastes that arise from the points like any medical institution or treatment, Care and analysis centers which directly threat the human health; they shall be collected, transported and disposed in a regular way. All these proceedings are referred to as as ‘solid waste management and treatment’.
wastes made by medical and analysis establishments like hospitals, clinics and laboratories square measure medical wastes and that they have the subsequent categories:
infectious waste, pathological waste, pharmaceutical waste, nontoxic waste, chemical waste, the waste that includes heavy metal, pressured container, radioactive wastes, inci-sive-driller wastes and additionally, the medical care carried out at home, insulin injection are also considered to be medical wastes.
The Medical Waste Composition according to the data of World Health Organization is as follows:
- 80% domestic general wastes;
- 15% pathological and infectious waste;
- 3% chemical and pharmaceutical waste;
- 1% incisive waste;
- 1% radioactive or cytotoxic waste, pressured containers and special wastes like broken thermometers or used batteries.
Production of medical waste.
Types of medical wastes:
Medical wastes can generally be analyzed in two parts:
- Non-Hazardous Wastes:– Domestic Waste;– Recyclable Waste.
- Hazardous Medical Wastes:– Infectious Waste;– Pathological Waste;– other Hazardous Waste.
Domestic wastes that arise from the medical institutions express the non-infected wastes thrown from the units. If there is cooking activity at the kitchen department of the hospital, the wastes generated here are accepted as domestic waste as well as yard wastes. The food that is served to the patient room that is not completely consumed cannot be included in this group; it shall be disposed as medical waste since it carries the risk of infection.
The recyclable wastes that arise from the medical institutions are the wastes of no infected package material thrown from the offices, like paper, glass, plastic, metal, etc. Package materials are recyclable materials however if they are used by the patient, they can no longer be accepted as recyclable material. They should be disposed as medical waste.
Medical Waste Treatment:
Gasification, landflling and sterilization techniques could be considered as main treatment methods of the medical wastes Gasification. It is the technique in which the wastes get harmless by being incinerated in special ovens at high emperatures and their volumes are significantly decreased.
It is one in all the foremost effective and secure technique for the medical wastes, however, the value of investment and operation of the plant is high, And refining the cancerogenic exhaust gases that are primarily caused by dioxin and furan also is costly. From this aspect, the measurement, analysis and refining of these gases require advanced technology and high cost. On the other hand, there also is the obligation to dispose the ashes that come out as a result of the process and that are considered to be hazardous in an appropriate storage area. While such plants have the greatest number on earth, they shall give place to other thermal processes which are more efficient in a near future. Department of environment protection and control.
Improper management of medical wastes can pose a great health risk not only to the public, but also to the waste workers. If the waste is not disposed, managed and treated properly, with the rapid increase of the amount, the problems will grow and threat the public health.
For this reason they should be managed by authorized people and organization. Careful and creative management strategies will be key to minimize the wastes at the health care centers. In some countries, gasification is used for domestic wastes, however, gasification is only used for medical wastes.
As the investment and operation costs of the gasifications plants are too high, the numbers of the gasification plants are very limited. For that reason the target of waste management act plan is sterilization. The demand for a comprehensive scope for waste control and management is being grappled with the beginning of regulatory efforts.
After the recommendation by the government with the promulgation of legislation, the number of the sterilization plants, all around the country increases quickly. The amount of the sterilized medical wastes will reach from 0 to 27% within 5 years according to the strategy of the Ministry.